Energy Articles

Energy Articles
The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: A Aqeel, MS Butt
Journal: Asia-Pacific Development Journal,Vol.8 (2), 2011--Pages 
Abstract: This paper investigates the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth and energy consumption and employment in Pakistan. By applying techniques of co-integration and Hsiao's version of Granger causality, the results infer that economic growth causes total energy consumption. Economic growth also leads to growth in petroleum consumption, while on the other hand, neither economic growth nor gas consumption affect each other. However, in the power sector it has been found that electricity consumption leads to economic growth without feedback. The implications of the study are that energy conservation policy regarding petroleum consumption would not lead to any side-effects on economic growth in Pakistan. However, an energy growth policy in the case of gas and electricity consumption should be adopted in such a way that it stimulates growth in the economy and thus expands employment opportunities
Citedy By: 414
Sustainable energy options for Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: M. Asif
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.13 (4), 2009--Pages 903-909
Abstract: With the advent of the year 2008, Pakistan faces a gap of 4500MW between the demand and supply of electricity, registering a shortfall of 40%. The article provides an overview of the key dimensions of the crisis, ie growing gap between demand and supply, diminishing indigenous oil and gas reserves, rising energy cost and security concerns. It also explores hydropower, solar energy, biomass and wind power as sustainable energy options for the country. In has been found that the total estimated hydropower potential is more than 42 GW out of which only 6.5 GW has been tapped so far. In terms of available solar energy Pakistan is amongst the richest countries in the world, having an annual global irradiance value of 1900–2200 kWh/m2 . Despite that fact that the biomass plays an important role in the primary energy mix by contributing to 36% of the total supplies, it has not managed to break into the commercial energy market. Wind power, also been identified as a potential source of energy, is yet to take off
Citedy By: 128
Energy consumption, real income and temporal causality: results from a multi-country study based on cointegration and error-correction modelling techniques
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: AMM Masih
Journal: Journal: Energy Economics,Vol.18 (3), 1996--Pages 165-183
Abstract: Unlike previous studies on the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, this paper illustrates how the finding of cointegration (i.e. long-term equilibrium relationship) between these variables, may be used in testing Granger causality. Based on the most recent Johansen's multivariate cointegration tests preceded by various unit root or non-stationarity tests, we test for cointegration between total energy consumption and real income of six Asian economies: India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines. Non-rejection of cointegration between variables rules out Granger non-causality and imples at least one way of Granger-causality, either unidirectional or bidirectionial. Secondly, by using a dynamic vector error-correction model, we then analyse the direction of Granger-causation and hence the within-sample Granger-exogeneity or endogeneity of each of the variables. Thirdly, the relative strength of the causality is gauged (through the dynamic variance decomposition technique) by decomposing the total impact of an unanticipated shock to each of the variables beyond the sample period, into proportions attributable to shocks in the other variables including its own, in the bivariate system. Results based on these tools of methodology indicate that while all pair-wise relationships shared common univariate integrational properties, only relationships for three countries (India, Pakistan and Indonesia) were cointegrated. For these countries, temporal causality results were mixed with unidirectional causality from energy to income for India, exactly the reverse for Indonesia, and mutual causality for Pakistan. The VDCs were not inconsistent with these results and provided us with an additional insight as to the relatively more *Corresponding author. Phone: (616) 268 8091; Fax: (616) 268 8450; Telex: ADFADM AA 62030; E-Mail: a-masih@adfa.oz.au 0140-9883/96/$15.00 © 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved PIIS0140-9883(96) 00009-6 166 A.M.M. Masih, 1~ Masih / Energy Economics 18 (1996) 165-183 dominant direction of causation in Pakistan. Simple bivariate vector-autoregressive models for the three non-cointegrated systems did not indicate any direction of causality, significantly in either direction.
Citedy By: 805
Energy consumption and GDP in developing countries: a cointegrated panel analysis
[PDF] 
Author: CC Lee
Journal: Energy economics,Vol.27 (3), 2005--Pages 415-425
Abstract: In this paper we re-investigate the co-movement and the causality relationship between energy consumption and GDP in 18 developing countries, using data for the period 1975 to 2001. Recently developed tests for the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration, and panel-based error correction models are employed. The empirical results provide clear support of a long-run cointegration relationship after allowing for the heterogeneous country effect. The long-run relationship is estimated using a full-modified OLS. The evidence shows that long-run and short-run causalities run from energy consumption to GDP, but not vice versa. This result indicates that energy conservation may harm economic growth in developing countries regardless of being transitory or permanent.
Citedy By: 784
Biogas, renewable energy resource for Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: SS Amjid, MQ Bilal, MS Nazir, A Hussain
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.15 (6), 2011--Pages 2833-2837
Abstract: Developing countries are in critical energy crisis. Pakistan spends almost 7 billion US$ on import of fossil fuels annually to congregate its energy needs. The renewable and sustainable energy resources are best substitute to the conventional fuels and energy sources. Pakistan takes the opportunity to have almost 159 million animals producing almost 652 million kg of manure daily from cattle and buffalo only; that can be used to generate 16.3 million m3 biogas per day and 21 million tons of bio fertilizer per year. That compensate approximately 20% of nitrogen and 66% of phosphorus required in the crop fields. Apart from this sugarcane industry has got the potential to generate 3000 MW energy. Domestic biogas plants were started in Pakistan in 1959 and at present there is significant number of such working units. Biogas Support Program (BSP) was started in 2000 by Pakistani government. So far it has achieved the target of installing 1200 biogas units, whereas another 10,000 units are expected to be set up in coming 05 years that will harvest almost 27% of country’s biogas potential. A biogas unit of 10 m3 size is anticipated to save almost 92,062 PKR per year on account of conventional fuels spent otherwise. Women’s opportunity cost, with introduction of biogas units reportedly increased; subsequently impacting positively on household income. Biogas energy generation systems are in demand and their number is increasing steadily. They are low-cost and can be run with very small budget. Biogas energy corridor can work as a good substitute for nearly 70% of country’s population residing in rural areas. Installation of plants to bottle the biogas can be additional opportunity. The need of a national policy is imperative to bring this technology at farmer’s doorstep.
Citedy By: 78
Renewable energy technologies in Pakistan: prospects and challenges
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: MA Chaudhry, R Raza, SA Hayat
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.13 (6-7), 2009--Pages 1657-1662
Abstract: Pakistan is an energy-deficient country. This paper accentuates the importance and challenges of new era technologies. The renewable energy sources like wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy, biomass energy and fuel cell technology can be used to overcome energy shortage in Pakistan. Renewable energy sources and technologies have the potential to provide solutions to the long-standing energy problems being faced by the developing countries. The expansion of existing energy resources and exploration of new sources is an important exercise to be considered in order to sustain their development initiatives.
Citedy By: 72
Energy consumption and GDP in developing countries: a cointegrated panel analysis
[PDF] 
Author: CC Lee
Journal: Energy economics,Vol.27 (3), 2005--Pages 415-427
Abstract: In this paper we re-investigate the co-movement and the causality relationship between energy consumption and GDP in 18 developing countries, using data for the period 1975 to 2001. Recently developed tests for the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration, and panel-based error correction models are employed. The empirical results provide clear support of a long-run cointegration relationship after allowing for the heterogeneous country effect. The long-run relationship is estimated using a full-modified OLS. The evidence shows that long-run and short-run causalities run from energy consumption to GDP, but not vice versa. This result indicates that energy conservation may harm economic growth in developing countries regardless of being transitory or permanent.
Citedy By: 784
An overview of biomass energy utilization in Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: UK Mirza, N Ahmad, T Majeed
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.12 (7), 2008--Pages 1988-1996
Abstract: Energy plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development by raising standard of living. Biomass has been used as an energy source for thousands of years by the humankind. Traditional fuels like firewood, dung and crop residues currently contribute a major share in meeting the everyday energy requirements of rural and low-income urban households in Pakistan. An average biomass using household consumes 2325 kg of firewood or 1480 kg of dung or 1160 kg of crop residues per annum. There are good prospects for using biogas energy in rural areas through a network of community biogas plants. Development of fuel-efficient cook stoves is a modest effort to help conserve biomass energy at domestic level. PCRET has so far installed 60,000 energy-conserving, improved cooking stoves all over the country, which are 12–28% efficient. E-10 gasoline pilot project and research on biodiesel production are underway. Sugarcane bagasse can potentially be used to generate 2000 MW of electric power. Attention is now being given to the use of municipal and industrial waste for power generation. The government is financing many projects related to biomass energy development in the country, but still lot more efforts are needed for harnessing full potential and taking maximum benefit out of this important renewable energy resource. r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Energy; Biomass; Biogas; Bagasse; Pakistan
Citedy By: 120
Wind energy development in Pakista
[PDF] 
Author: UK Mirza, N Ahmad, T Majeed, K Harijan
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.11 (9), 2007--Pages 2179-2190
Abstract: Pakistan has a very limited fossil fuel resource base. The poor economy does not allow the import of fossil fuels, particularly oil, on a large scale. Moreover, too much reliance on imported oil is critical from energy security point of view. A large fraction of the population lives in remote areas and is still waiting to be connected to the national electricity grid. To help these remote communities in particular, and to overcome energy shortages in general, Pakistan needs to develop its indigenous energy resources like hydropower, solar and wind. More than 1000 km long coastline in south and some places in northern mountainous areas provide an excellent resource of wind energy. This vast potential can be exploited to produce electricity on both community and wind farm scales. Applications other than electricity production, such as water pumping, also have vast applications. This article discusses the past, the present and the future of wind energy use in Pakistan. The efforts for the utilization of wind energy in the country are presented as well, along with barriers to its development. It is concluded that the potential exists, but significant efforts are needed to effectively make use of this cheap renewable energy source.
Citedy By: 71
Energy and renewable energy scenario of Pakistan
[PDF] amazonaws.com
Author: MA Sheikh
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.14 (1), 2010--Pages 354-363
Abstract: This paper presents a review about conventional and renewable energy scenario of the county in quantitative terms of supply, generation and exploitation of available resources. In this energy scenario, the renewable energy share is in the range of a fraction of a percentage compared to total conventional energy supplies, so depicting it as a sector of least significance for government. Main emphasis in this paper has been given on presentation of data about renewable energy (RE) installations in the country, on-going activities, development projects, RE planning and achievements of public sector RE institutions and organizations. At the end some suggestions are given for effective planning and exploitation of RE resources and use of technologies. These suggestions are not only useful for Pakistan but also are equally important for the third world countries to enhance appreciably RE contribution in their total energy supplies of their country.
Citedy By: 117
Greener energy: Issues and challenges for Pakistan-Biomass energy prospective
[PDF] 
Author: AW Bhutto, AA Bazmi, G Zahedi
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy ,Vol.14 (1), 2010--Pages 354–363
Abstract: : Diversification of fuel sources is imperative to address the energy security, climate change, and sustainable development issues; therefore, it is essential to address the energy crisis through the extensive utilization of abundant renewable energy resources, such as biomass energy, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy. Improving energy services for poor households in developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the development community. Earlier studies suggest in South Asia the households are likely to follow the energy ladder comprising fuels like dung, crop residue, firewood, kerosene, gobar gas, LPG, and electricity for cooking purposes. Evidence suggests that while it is possible to observe such transition in urban and semi-urban areas, the change is very slow in rural areas. In rural Pakistan,the access to commercial energy resources is limited,the majority ofthe households still heavily rely on traditional methods of using wood, animal waste and crop waste for domestic fuel needs. Efficiencies of use are very low and most of the potential is wasted because of non-scientific conventional technologies. Consequently there is an obligatory need to develop modern bio-energy technologies since renewable resources may serve to supplement the long-term energy needs of Pakistan to a significant level. Though the bio-resource base of Pakistan is substantial, its contribution to useful energy is low. In this paper we called attention to issues and challenges in biomass utilization for energy in Pakistan in context of sustainable development. This paper has identified areas in Pakistan where there is considerable scope to modernize biomass energy production delivery systems to provide varied energy carriers such as electricity, industrial and domestic fuel and gases. Barriers are examined over the whole biomass energy spectrum and policy issue and institutional roles and responsibilities are discussed.
Citedy By: 84
Is energy consumption effective to spur economic growth in Pakistan? New evidence from bounds test to level relationships and Granger causality tests
[PDF] https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/39734/1/MPRA_paper_39734.pdf
Author: M Shahbaz, M Zeshan, T Afza
Journal: Economic Modelling,Vol.29 (6), 2012--Pages 2310–2319
Abstract: The present study investigates the relationship between energy (renewable and nonrenewable) consumption and economic growth using Cobb-Douglas production function in case of Pakistan over the period of 1972-2011. We have used ARDL bounds testing and Gregory and Hansen (1990) structural break cointegration approaches for long run while stationarity properties of the variables are tested applying Clemente-Montanes-Reyes (1998) structural break unit root test. Our results confirm co-integration between renewable energy consumption, nonrenewable energy consumption, economic growth, capital and labor in case of Pakistan. The findings show that both renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption add to economic growth. Capital and labour are also important determinants of economic growth. The VECM granger causality analysis validates the existence of feedback hypotheses between renewable energy consumption and economic growth, nonrenewable energy consumption and economic growth, economic growth and capital. Keywords: Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, Pakistan
Citedy By: 118
Selection of renewable energy technologies for a developing county: a case of Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: M Amer, TU Daim
Journal: Energy for Sustainable Development,Vol.15 (4), 2011--Pages 420–435
Abstract: In this paper some renewable energy options for electricity generation for Pakistan are explored from multiple perspectives comprising technical, economical, social, environmental and political aspects. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been used for the first time for the energy sector of Pakistan. An AHP model has been presented for the selection and prioritization of various renewable energy technologies for electricity generation. After accessing potential of the country for generating electricity from renewable resources, reviewing relevant scholarly literature and discussion with experts, an appropriate decision model has been formulated consisting of goal, criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives. Wind energy, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal and biomass energy options are used as the alternatives in the decision model. Besides ranking and prioritizing of these technologies, results of the proposed decision model can also be used for the development of long-term renewable energy policy and energy roadmap for the country. The findings of this research might also be highly relevant to other developing countries.
Citedy By: 111
Energy and economic growth in Pakistan
[PDF] pide.org.pk
Author: R Siddiqui
Journal: The Pakistan Development Review,Vol.43 (2), 2004--Pages 175-200
Abstract: Recent rise in energy prices, shrinking existing resources, and the search for alternative sources of energy and energy conservation technologies have brought into focus the issue of causality between energy use and economic growth. The results of this study show that energy expansion is expected to lead to higher growth and its shortage may retard the growth process. The impact of all sources of energy on economic growth is not the same. The impact of electricity and petroleum products as well as that of electricity only is high and statistically significant. However, the reverse causality is critical for the petroleum products
Citedy By: 95
Renewable energy for managing energy crisis in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: K Harijan, MA Uqaili, M Memon
Journal:  International Multi Topic Conference,Vol. (), 2008--Pages 449-455
Abstract: Only 55% of the Pakistan’s population has access to electricity and per capita supply is about 520 kWh. At present, the people are facing severe load shedding/blackout problems due to shortage of about 3 GW power supply. Gas and oil have 65% share in conventional electricity generation. Indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country’s economy. Though there is huge coal potential in the country but has not been utilized due to various reasons. This shows that Pakistan must develop renewables to manage the energy crises. This paper analyses the prospects of renewable for managing the energy crises in the country. The study concludes that there is substantial potential of renewables in the country for managing the present energy crises as well as meeting the future energy needs.
Citedy By: 33
Renewable energy in Pakistan: status and trends
[PDF] atrc.net.pk
Author: NA Khan, IA Mirza, MS Khalil
Journal: Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB),Vol. (), 2014--Pages 
Abstract: Energy consumption in Pakistan is mainly dependent on conventional fuels that are usually imported and each increase in the oil prices in the international market results in a proportional increase in fuel prices in the country. This situation along with the concerns over the rapid depletion of country’s natural gas reserves has raised very serious concerns on availability of energy and its security. As of 2003 there was no use of renewable energy in the country and the Government having realized that created an autonomous Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB). This Board has been created to coordinate, facilitate and promote Alternative / Renewable Energy technologies so as to achieve 5% share of power generation through renewable energies by year 2030. This article provides an overview of the potential of various renewable energy sources , various developments project undertaken by the Government of Pakistan and its mid term and long term plan.
Citedy By: 5
Specific concerns of Pakistan in the context of energy security issues and geopolitics of the region
[PDF] 
Author: MH Sahir, AH Qureshi
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.35 (4), 2007--Pages 2031–2037
Abstract: The global and regional energy security in future is not likely to be threatened as much by the shortage of resources as it is likely to be endangered by the disruption of supplies and availability of tradable resources: threatened by growing terrorism and geopolitical conflicts. Pakistan's geo-strategic position and its importance act to both influence and undermine its energy security issues. It has the potential to provide a corridor for regional energy trade but it is ranked among the top nations exposed to potential threat of terrorist attacks because of the consequences of its role in the major geopolitical expeditions of the recent past. The paper examines the concerns of Pakistan emanating from the regional and global geopolitics of energy from Pakistan's viewpoint.
Citedy By: 54
Pioneering new indoor temperature standards: the Pakistan project
[PDF] 
Author: F Nicol, S Roaf
Journal: Energy and Buildings,Vol.23 (3), 1996--Pages 169-174
Abstract: Field surveys of thermal comfort have been conducted summer and winter in the five climatic regions of Pakistan to help the Pakistani Government to replace existing inappropriate indoor temperature standards. Results are presented which show large variations in desired indoor temperature with climate and season. The reasons for the differences are explored and an indication of the way in which responsive indoor temperature standards, which encourage the use of passive architecture and save energy in air-conditioned buildings, might be framed is presented
Citedy By: 138
Identifying and addressing barriers to renewable energy development In Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: UK Mirza, N Ahmad, K Harijan, T Majeed
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy ,Vol.13 (4), 2009--Pages 927–931
Abstract: To ensure a sustainable energy future for Pakistan, it is necessary that the energy sector be accorded a high priority. Pakistan remains predominantly reliant on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. Efforts to reduce reliance on fossil fuels through increasing the share of renewable energy in the energy supply systems have met with little success so far. The barriers to development of renewable energy can be broadly classified as policy and regulatory barriers, institutional barriers, fiscal and financial barriers, market-related barriers, technological barriers and information and social barriers. In this article, an effort has been made to identify the barriers that limit the use of renewable energy technologies in general and with specific reference to Pakistan, and outline the measures to address these barriers.
Citedy By: 74
Assessment of new and renewable energy resources potential and identification of barriers to their significant utilization in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: MH Sahir, AH Qureshi
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.12 (1), 2008--Pages 290–298
Abstract: The paper presents a review of the assessed potential of the renewable resources and practical limitations to their significant use in the context of present scenarios and future projections of the national energy mix for Pakistan. Solar, wind, biomass and micro hydel resources are likely to play an important role in future; however these should be seen as supplementary resources and not as alternatives. IEP approach and consistent policy instruments are needed for sustainable development of RETs.
Citedy By: 64
Status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan
[PDF] tawanai.com
Author: UK Mirza, MM Maroto-Valer, N Ahmad
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.7 (6), 2003--Pages 501–514
Abstract: : Pakistan is an energy deficient country, where a large fraction of the population still does not have access to modern day energy services such as electricity. This is due to very limited fossil fuel resources and poor economy, which restrains the import of fossil fuels on a large scale. To overcome energy shortage, Pakistan needs to develop its indigenous energy resources like hydropower, solar and wind. Pakistan lies in an area of one of the highest solar insolation in the world. This vast potential can be exploited to produce electricity, which could be provided to off-grid communities in the northern hilly areas and the southern and western deserts. Applications other than electricity production such as solar water heaters and solar cookers also have vast applications. All this will help in both reducing the import of fossil fuels and dependency of people on fuel wood, which in turn will provide some respite for the dwindling forest reserves of Pakistan. Accordingly, the status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan is discussed in this paper. In addition, the role of R&D organizations in the promotion of solar energy technologies in Pakistan is also presented including a description of some proposed projects. It is concluded that the current infrastructure has not been able to advance the status of solar energy of Pakistan. Significant efforts are needed to effectively utilize this cheap renewable energy source.
Citedy By: 64
Energy demand in Pakistan: a disaggregate analysis
[PDF] uni-muenchen.de
Author: MA Khan, U Ahmad
Journal: The Pakistan Development Review,Vol.47 (4), 2009--Pages 437-455
Abstract: This study examines the demand for energy at disaggregate level (gas, electricity and coal) for Pakistan over the period 1972-2007. Over main results suggest that electricity and coal consumption responds positively to changes in real income per capita and negatively to changes in domestic price level. The gas consumption responds negatively to real income and price changes in the short-run, however, in the long-run real income exerts positive effect on gas consumption, while domestic price remains insignificant. Furthermore, in the short-run the average elasticities of price and real income for gas consumption (in absolute terms) are greater than that of electricity and coal consumption. The differences in elasticities of each component of energy have significant policy implications for income and revenue generation
Citedy By: 64
Energy consumption and economic growth in Asian economies: a more comprehensive analysis using panel data
[PDF] 
Author: CC Lee, CP Chang
Journal: Resource and energy Economics,Vol.30 (1), 2008--Pages 50–65
Abstract: This paper applies the most recently developed panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based error correction models to re-investigate co-movement and the causal relationship between energy consumption and real GDP within a multivariate framework that includes capital stock and labor input for 16 Asian countries during the 1971–2002 period. It employs the production side model (aggregate production function). The empirical results fully support a positive long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP and energy consumption when the heterogeneous country effect is taken into account. It is found that although economic growth and energy consumption lack short-run causality, there is long-run unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to economic growth. This means that reducing energy consumption does not adversely affect GDP in the short-run but would in the long-run; thus, these countries should adopt a more vigorous energy policy. Furthermore, we broaden the investigation by dividing the sample countries into two cross-regional groups, namely the APEC and ASEAN groups, and even more important results and implications emerge
Citedy By: 495
Sustainable development in Pakistan in the context of energy consumption demand and environmental degradation
[PDF] 
Author: S Alam, A Fatima, MS Butt
Journal: Journal of Asian Economics,Vol.18 (5), 2007--Pages 825–837
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of population growth, economic growth, energy intensity (EI) growth and urbanization growth on environmental degradation in Pakistan. The paper will investigate simultaneously the effect of population growth, urbanization, energy consumption and environmental degradation on the sustainable economic growth as well. To ensure the sustainable development of the economy environmental degradation should not increase with time but be reduced or at least remain constant. If it increases, we will move further away for sustainability, while if it decreases, we will move closer towards it. The results indicate that 1% increase in GDP growth leads to 0.84% increase in growth rate of carbon dioxide emissions, and an increase of 1% in the energy intensity growth rate causes almost 0.24% increases in growth rate of CO2 emissions. As far as results of co-integrating vector normalized on GDP growth is concerned, the coefficients of EI growth and CO2 emissions growth are found to be affecting the level of development significantly and positively by 0.3% and 1.2%, respectively. This indicates that in Pakistan process of economic development is dependent on the level of energy use and the resultant of this energy use, CO2 emissions caused economic growth significantly and positively. In addition to the rapid urbanization and increased population growth affect positively to environmental degradation while negatively and significantly to the economic development in the long run.
Citedy By: 77
Thermal springs of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: MA Bakr
Journal: Pakistan Geol. Surv. Rec,Vol.16 (), 1996--Pages 3
Abstract: 3 Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; PAKISTAN; HOT SPRINGS; GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES; THERMAL WATERS; ASIA; RESOURCES; THERMAL SPRINGS 150202* -- Geology & Hydrology of Geothermal
Citedy By: 14
How to do structural validity of a system dynamics type simulation model: the case of an energy policy model
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: H Qudrat-Ullah, BS Seong
Journal: Energy PolicyVolume,Vol.13 (), --Pages 3
Abstract: System dynamics based simulation models are becoming increasingly popular in the analysis of important energy policy issues including global warming, deregulation, conservation and efficiency. The usefulness of these models is predicated on their ability to link observable patterns of behavior of a system to micro-level structures. This paper argues that the structural validity of the simulation model—right behavior for the right reasons—is a stringent measure to build confidence in a simulation model regardless of how well the model passes behavior validity tests. That leads to an outline of formal structural validity procedures available but less explored in system dynamics modeling ‘repertoire’. An illustration of a set of six tests for structural validity of a system dynamics model for energy policy analysis follows. Then using Theil inequality statistics, the behavior validity of the model is also tested. Finally, some conclusions on the increased appeal for simulation models for energy policy analysis and design are presented.
Citedy By: 120
Alternate energy resources for pakistan: sustainable solutions for fulfilling energy requirements
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: M Shakir, IU Haq, MA Khan, SA Malik
Journal: World Applied Sciences Journal ,Vol.31 (5), 2014--Pages 718-723
Abstract: Pakistan has been facing the problem of energy shortages and the problem has deteriorated under successive governments. A burning need of the hour is to devise proper strategy for utilizing the available resources and making Pakistan self-sufficient in energy requirements. Different segments of the society have discussed on the feasible issues and convergence of ideas to work on a joint mechanism with active involvement and support from the government along with guidance from scientists and academia is the way forward to derive a long term sustainable solution. Alternate energy resources have to be introduced at domestic and commercial level thus promoting viable energy efficient solution across the country. Roughly the requirement is around 6000 MW which has to be added to the national grid. With the blatant needs of energy, Pakistan has the right to exercise the use of nuclear energy for meeting its demands and keeping the civil nuclear agreements going on in the world. Many energy sources are environmental friendly, they provide an alternate safe source helping to keep pollution within certain levels as required by the world standards. Coastal areas of Pakistan are a huge resource for utilizing wind energy potential to its maximal level. Pakistan has the potential to generate 3 million megawatts electricity through solar energy. The need of the hour is to build small scale hydro dams in Pakistan since other power generation sources are difficult to be implemented in remote areas. We would explore the available resources for maximal benefit and utilization.
Citedy By: 4
Power generation in Pakistan: past trends, current status and future projections
[PDF] 
Author: MA Uqaili, M Mirani, K Harijan
Journal: Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,Vol.23 (3), 2004--Pages 207-216
Abstract: Energy is an essential ingredient of socio-economic development and economic growth. Electricity is the most versatile form of energy and is the key to the modern world. Pakistan is an energy deficient country. The total power generation capacity in the country is of the order of 17.8 GW. About half of the country's population has no access to electricity and per capita electricity supply is only 500 kWh. The conventional electricity generation includes 68.3% thermal (oil, gas and coal), 29.5% hydel and 2.3% nuclear. The electricity generation increased by 8% per year during the last four decades and future demand has been projected to grow at 7-11 % per annum. The hydel electricity generation installed capacity was 240 MW in 1960 with 70% share in total installed capacity mix. It has substantially increased to 5,041 MW in 2003 in absolute terms; however the share in total installed capacity decreased to 28.34%. This paper presents the past trends, current status and future projections for hydel power generation in Pakistan. The study concludes that though the installed capacity of hydel power generation increased at an average rate of about 48% per annum from 1960 to 2003, but its share in total electricity generation mix decreased continuously in the last four decades and projected that its share will also decreases in the future too. The government should take concrete efforts for growth in hydel electricity generation especially small hydro power, to meet increasing power demand, to increase economic independence, to reduce fossil fuel consumption and to protect the environment from pollution resulting from increasing thermal power generation
Citedy By: 4
Renewable energy resource potential in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: MA Sheikh
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.13 (9), 2009--Pages 2696–2702
Abstract: Pakistan energy situation is seriously troubling today due to lack of careful planning and implementation of its energy policies. To avoid the worse situation in the years ahead, the country will have to exploit its huge natural renewable resource. In this paper a review is being presented about renewable energy resource potential available in the country to be exploited for useful and consistent energy supplies. On average solar global insolation 5–7 kWh/m2/day, wind speed 5–7.5 m/s, Biogas 14 million m3/day, microhydel more than 600 MW (for small units) with persistency factor of more than 80% over a year exist in the country. Solar and wind maps are presented along with identification of hot spring sites as resource of geothermal energy. The research results presented in this paper are not only useful for government policy makers, executing agencies but also for private sector national and international agencies and stake holders who want to invest in Pakistan for renewable energy projects or business.
Citedy By: 49
A computable general equilibrium model of energy, economy and equity interactions in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: F Naqvi
Journal: Energy Economics,Vol.4 (1), 1998--Pages 347–373
Abstract: This article introduces a computable general equilibrium model of the Pakistan economy. Some major extensions to a standard neoclassical model have been made to capture the interlinkages between economy, energy and equity. The model has been designed mainly to carry out policy oriented short-term studies especially for the energy sector. An illustrative application of the model shows its capability to provide detailed information which are useful in analysis of a policy issue
Citedy By: 49
Management of natural gas resources and search for alternative renewable energy resources: A case study of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: SN Malik, OR Sukhera
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.16 (2), 2012--Pages 1282–1290
Abstract: Energy usage in Pakistan has increased rapidly in past few years due to increase in economic growth. Inadequate and inconsistent supply of energy has created pressure on the industrial and commercial sectors of Pakistan and has also affected environment. Demand has already exceeded supply and load shedding has become common phenomenon. Due to excessive consumption of energy resources it would become difficult to meet future energy demands. This necessitates proper management of existing and exploration of new energy resources. Energy resource management is highly dependent on the supply and demand pattern. This paper highlights the future demands, production and supply of energy produced from natural gas based on economic and environmental constraints in Pakistan with special emphasis on management of natural gas. An attempt has been made by proposing a suitable course of action to meet the rising gas demand. A mechanism has been proposed to evaluate Pakistan's future gas demand through quantitative analysis of base, worst and best/chosen option. CO2 emission for all cases has also been evaluated. The potential, constraints and possible solutions to develop alternative renewable energy resources in the country have also been discussed. This work will be fruitful for the decision makers responsible for energy planning of the country. This work is not only helpful for Pakistan but is equally important to other developing countries to manage their energy resources
Citedy By: 21
A clean and permanent energy infrastructure for Pakistan: solar-hydrogen energy system
[PDF] 
Author: N Lutfi, TN Veziroǧlu
Journal: International journal of hydrogen energy,Vol.16 (3), 1991--Pages 169-200
Abstract: A solar-hydrogen energy system has been proposed for Pakistan as the best replacement for the present fossil fuel based energy system. Hydrogen is to be produced via a photovoltaic-electrolysis system, utilizing the available non-agricultural sunny terrain in Baluchistan region. There will be a desalination plant for sea water desalination. The area under the photovoltaic panels with the availability of water would provide suitable environment for growing some cash crops. This would change the vast useless desert land into green productive farms. In order to show the quantitative benefits of the proposed system, future trends of important energy and economical parameters have been studied with and without hydrogen introduction. These included population, energy demand (fossil + hydrogen), energy production (fossil + hydrogen), gross national product, fossil energy imports, world energy prices, environmental savings due to hydrogen introduction, savings due to the higher utilization efficiency of hydrogen, by-product credit, agricultural income, income from hydrogen sale, photovoltaic cell area, total land area, water desalination plant capacity, capital investment, operating and maintenance cost, total income from the system environmental impact and quality of life. The results indicate that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would eliminate the import dependency on fossil fuels, increase gross product per capita, reduce pollution, improve quality of life, and establish a permanent and clean energy system. The total annual expenditure for the proposed system is quite small compared to the total income expected. The availability of water, the cast crop production, electricity and hydrogen would result in rapid development of Baluchistan, the largest province of Pakistan
Citedy By: 48
Greener energy: issues and challenges for Pakistan—solar energy prospective
[PDF] psu.edu
Author: AW Bhutto, AA Bazmi, G Zahedi
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy ,Vol.16 (5), 2012--Pages 2762–2780
Abstract: Energy plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development by raising standard of living. It is becoming gradually accepted that current energy systems, networks encompassing every thing from primary energy sources to final energy services, are becoming unsustainable. Development of conventional forms of energy for meeting the growing energy needs of society at a reasonable cost is the responsibility of the Governments. In recent years, public and political sensitivities to environmental issues and energy security have led to the promotion of renewable energy resources. Diversification of fuel sources is imperative to address these issues; and limited fossil resources and environmental problems associated with them have emphasized the need for new sustainable energy supply options that use renewable energies. Development and promotion of new non-conventional, alternate and renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind and bio-energy, etc. are now getting sustained attention. Solar power is one of the hottest areas in energy investment right now, but there is much debate about the future of solar technology and solar energy markets. This investigates the progress and challenges for solar power in Pakistan according to the overall concept of sustainable development, and identifies the region wise potential of solar power in Pakistan and its current status. Barriers are examined over the whole solar energy spectrum and policy issues and institutional roles and responsibilities are discussed
Citedy By: 48
The dynamics of electricity consumption and economic growth: A revisit study of their causality in Pakistan
[PDF] esearchgate.net
Author: M Shahbaz, HH Lean
Journal: Energy,Vol.39 (1), 2012--Pages 146–153
Abstract: This study revisits the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Pakistan by controlling and investigating the effects of two major production factors – capital and labor. The empirical evidence confirms the cointegration among the variables and indicates that electricity consumption has a positive effect on economic growth. Moreover, bi-directional Granger causality between electricity consumption and economic growth has been found. The finding suggests that adoption of electricity conservation policies to conserve energy resources may unwittingly decline economic growth and the lower growth rate will in turn further decrease the demand for electricity. Therefore, government contemplating such conservationist policies should instead explore and develop alternate sources of energy as a strategy rather than just increasing electricity production per se in order to meet the rising demand for electricity in their quest towards sustaining development in the country
Citedy By: 125
An evaluation of wind energy potential at Kati Bandar, Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: I Ullah, AJ Chipperfield
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.14 (2), 2010--Pages 856–861
Abstract: As a developing nation of energy-starved people, Pakistan urgently needs new sources of affordable, clean energy. Wind energy is potentially attractive because of its low environmental impact and sustainability. This work aims to investigate the wind power production potential of sites in south-eastern Pakistan. Wind speed data measured over a one-year period at a typical site on the south-east coast of Pakistan are presented. Frequency distributions of wind speed and wind power densities at three heights, seasonal variations of speed, and estimates of power likely to be produced by commercial turbines are included. The site investigated is found to be a class 4 wind power site with annual average wind speed of 7.16 m/s and power density of 414 W/m2 at 50 m height. The site is, therefore, likely to be suitable for wind farms as well as small, stand-alone systems
Citedy By: 36
The energy supply situation in the rural sector of Pakistan and the potential of renewable energy technologies
[PDF] 
Author: MA Ghaffar - Renewable
Journal: Renewable energy,Vol.16 (8), 1995--Pages 941-976
Abstract: Renewable energy, Volume 6, Issue 8, November 1995, Pages 941-976- Elsevier Abstract: Pakistan has few energy resources and the country is heavily dependent on the import of fossil fuel. More than 20% of foreign exchange earnings is spent on oil imports every year. The urban population has access to commercial energy sources but the rural population consumes wood, animal and crop waste for its domestic energy needs. Interest in renewables as part of national energy supplies is growing. Among renewables, biogas and solar energy receive more attention because of their good resource potential. Renewables, especially biogas and solar energy, could supply energy for various applications and thus raise the living standards of the people
Citedy By: 28
Environmental Kuznets curve and the role of energy consumption in Pakistan
[PDF] mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
Author: S Muhammad, HH Lean, SS Muhammad
Journal: Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA Paper No. 34929),Vol. (), 2011--Pages 
Abstract: The paper is an effort to fill the gap in the energy literature with a comprehensive country study for Pakistan. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness for Pakistan over the period of 1971- 2009. Bounds test for cointegration and Granger causality test are employed for the empirical analysis. The result suggests that there exists long-run relationship among the variables and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is supported. The significant existence of EKC shows the country's effort to condense CO2 emissions and indicates a reasonable achievement of controlling environmental degradation in Pakistan. Furthermore, we find oneway causal relationship running from income to CO2 emissions. Energy consumption increases CO2 emissions both in the short and long runs. Trade openness reduces CO2 emissions in the long run but it is insignificant in the short run. In addition, the change in CO2 emissions from short run to the long span of time is corrected by about 10 percent each year
Citedy By: 43
An assessment of renewable energy potential for electricity generation in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: MK Farooq, S Kumar
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy ,Vol.20 (), 2013--Pages 240–254
Abstract: Renewable energy for power generation is gaining attention around the world, and for Pakistan, these resources can fulfill the present and future energy demands of the country. Though the potential of renewable energy resources has been assessed in earlier studies, their assessment did not consider the most promising technologies. Moreover, their estimation was static and the future renewable resource potential was not estimated. This study estimates the current and future potential of renewable energy sources for power generation by employing most promising technologies. The technical potential of solar energy from solar photovoltaic and parabolic trough thermal technologies for power generation is estimated to be 149 GW in 2010 and 169 GW in 2050. The suitable area for wind energy generation is available for the capacity installation of 13 GW. The potential from biomass energy sources is 5 GW in 2010 and could be 15 GW in 2050. Small hydro installed capacity under current circumstances can reach 3 GW installed capacity. The current national plans are resulting in exploitation of wind and small hydro plants, but a large technical potential of solar and biomass technologies also exists. The study results clearly demonstrate that renewable energy sources can supplement the energy needs of Pakistan and can provide a sustainable energy base.
Citedy By: 0
The energy demand in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan: some further results
[PDF] bilkent.edu.tr
Author: SF Mahmud
Journal: Energy Economics,Vol.22 (6), 2000--Pages 641–648
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to re-examine the role of energy in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan using a Partial Equilibrium Approach. GL restricted cost function along with the factor demand equations were estimated using Zellner’s iterative procedure. Higher energy prices do not seem to adversely affect investment in capital. Substitution possibilities between energy and non-energy inputs are very limited and therefore energy price hikes may directly affect the cost of production. Inter-fuel cross price elasticities indicate that there are substitution possibilities between electricity and gas
Citedy By: 0
Environmental Kuznets curve for carbon emissions in Pakistan: an empirical investigation
[PDF] 
Author: M Nasir, FU Rehman
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.39 (3), 2011--Pages 1857–1864
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between carbon emissions, income, energy consumption, and foreign trade in Pakistan for the period 1972–2008. By employing the Johansen method of cointegration, the study finds that there is a quadratic long-run relationship between carbon emissions and income, confirming the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Pakistan. Moreover, both energy consumption and foreign trade are found to have positive effects on emissions. The short-run results have, however, denied the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The short-run results are unique to the existing literature in the sense that none of the long-run determinants of emissions is significant. The contradictory results of short- and long-run give policy makers the opportunity to formulate different types of growth policies for the two terms taking environmental issues into consideration. In addition, the uni-directional causality from growth to energy consumption suggests that the policy makers should not only focus on forecasting future demand for energy with different growth scenarios but also on obtaining the least cost energy. Furthermore, the absence of causality from emissions to growth suggests that Pakistan can curb its carbon emissions without disturbing its economic growth.
Citedy By: 0
Environmental Kuznets curve for carbon emissions in Pakistan: an empirical investigation
[PDF] 
Author: M Nasir, FU Rehman
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.39 (3), 2011--Pages 1857–1864
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between carbon emissions, income, energy consumption, and foreign trade in Pakistan for the period 1972–2008. By employing the Johansen method of cointegration, the study finds that there is a quadratic long-run relationship between carbon emissions and income, confirming the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Pakistan. Moreover, both energy consumption and foreign trade are found to have positive effects on emissions. The short-run results have, however, denied the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The short-run results are unique to the existing literature in the sense that none of the long-run determinants of emissions is significant. The contradictory results of short- and long-run give policy makers the opportunity to formulate different types of growth policies for the two terms taking environmental issues into consideration. In addition, the uni-directional causality from growth to energy consumption suggests that the policy makers should not only focus on forecasting future demand for energy with different growth scenarios but also on obtaining the least cost energy. Furthermore, the absence of causality from emissions to growth suggests that Pakistan can curb its carbon emissions without disturbing its economic growth.
Citedy By: 0
Energy geopolitics and Iran–Pakistan–India gas pipeline
[PDF] 
Author: SK Verma
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.35 (6), 2007--Pages 3280–3301
Abstract: With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran–Pakistan–India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related ‘international guarantees’ notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do—Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this pipeline for India and then the geopolitics involved in it.
Citedy By: 43
Energy substitution in Pakistan's manufacturing
[PDF] 
Author: S CHISHTI, F MAHMUD
Journal: Pakistan Economic and Social Review,Vol.26 (1), 1988--Pages 57-64
Abstract: The demand for energy in Pakistan's industrial sector has been growing at an annual rate of 6.3%. The sector uses about 30% of the commercial energy out of which gas accounts for 38% and electricity 30%. The composition of demand in terms of different energy carriers has been changing. Also the intensity of production has also been increasing. As a result gap between potential demand and supply is widening. Unless strides are made to optimize the production and use of energy, Pakistan is likely to face serious crises in future. The main purpose of the study is to estimate the substitution elasticities between energy and non energy inputs in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. This analysis is at the firm level
Citedy By: 5
Recent progress in renewable energy–Remedy of energy crisis in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: AB Awan, ZA Khan
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.33 (), 2014--Pages 236–253
Abstract: Energy plays a pivotal role for the economic development of a country. A reliable source of energy is needed to improve the living standard of people. Today, industrial progress plays a vital role in the development of any country but the industrial progress depends on reliable supply of electricity. However, Pakistan is passing through an energy crisis that is seriously affecting the lives of people. The main reason for the energy crisis is rapidly increasing the prices of hydro-carbon resources and lack of planning to foresee the increasing energy demand in the country. Renewable energy (RE) can play an important role to minimize this crisis. Besides the depletion of fossil fuel, the accumulation of their emissions has catastrophic effects on our environment. Modern civilizations are more curious about environmental cleanliness. Environmental pollution is supposed to be a serious threat to the life on our planet. Our earth could heat up by several degrees in future if we do not stop using non-renewable energy resources. In this article, the exiting production of renewable energy through different RE technologies is discussed and the potential capacity of production of energy through these technologies in Pakistan is studied. Some suggestions are also proposed to increase the RE share in the energy mix of the country
Citedy By: 42
Climatic variations in comfortable temperatures: the Pakistan projects
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: JF Nicol, IA Raja, A Allaudin, GN Jamy
Journal: Energy and buildings,Vol.30 (3), 1999--Pages 261–279
Abstract: Two thermal comfort surveys in Pakistan are described. One was longitudinal conducted in summer and winter, the other was transverse with monthly surveys over a whole year. The surveys were conducted in five cities each representing a particular climatic region. The use of building controls and clothing is analysed. There is close agreement between the findings of the two surveys despite differences in methodology. The surveys show that there is a definite relationship between indoor comfort and outdoor conditions in line with an adaptive approach to thermal comfort. The current International Standard does not accurately reflect these. Because of the large variations in indoor temperature in many Pakistani buildings, the surveys also indicate the limits of people's ability to adapt to indoor temperatures.
Citedy By: 225
The demand for energy in the large-scale manufacturing sector of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: F Mahmud, S Chishti
Journal: Energy Economics,Vol.12 (4), 1990--Pages 251-254
Abstract: The extent of interfuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, in the large-scale manufacturing sector of Pakistan has been examined. The model has been estimated in two stages. In the first stage input demand for various energy components is estimated and hence an aggregate Divisia index is constructed. In the second stage this index is used as an instrument to estimate aggregate input demand for capital, labour and energy along with their price and substitution elasticities. It seems that there is little interfuel substitution. The results also show that energy and labour are substitutes while energy and capital are complement.
Citedy By: 25
Prospects of renewable energy sources in Pakistan
[PDF] comsats.org
Author: NA Zaigham, Z Nayyar
Journal: Energy Technologies and Sustainable ,Vol. (), 2005--Pages 
Abstract: Professor & Director Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan Lecturer Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi Karachi, Pakistan Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega & macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave & tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner environment in Pakistan. The country can be benefited by harnessing these options of energy-generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. As Pakistan is an agricultural country and major part of its population lives in the rural areas, the electricity generated by renewable sources will also improve rural life, thereby reducing the urban migration that is taxing the ability of cities to cope with their own environmental problems
Citedy By: 33
Exercising multidisciplinary approach to assess interrelationship between energy use, carbon emission and land use change in a metropolitan city of Pakistan
[PDF] researchgate.net
Author: G Ali, V Nitivattananon
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.16 (1), 2012--Pages 775–786
Abstract: Population of two cities in Pakistan has already crossed the 10-million figure and for the rest of the areas in the country populations are also increasing rapidly. Urbanization has boosted the use of energy in the cities and so is greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions but the ground situation as to the extent, vulnerability, past trends and future scenarios are not unveiled for the cities of Pakistan. Dearth of data in Pakistan is a huge hindrance to the investigation of energy use and actual GHG emissions. We dared to take steps in addressing this case and put preliminary efforts in compiling baseline sectoral breakdown of energy use, carbon emission and land cover/land use. Furthermore, the relationship of CO2 source and sink is also explored. This study mainly tries to achieve three objectives. The results illustrate that industrial and residential sectors are vibrant consumers of energy and CO2 emitters among all other sectors of the city. Sparse trees in the city and reduced agriculture areas by more than one-half in 2009 compared with those in 1975 are the main reasons for increased energy use and reduced CO2emissions from agriculture sector as well. However, all the other sectors have increased their CO2 emissions in an escalating trend. The forecast analysis portrays the same trend too. Therefore, there is a need to make policy makers recognize such vulnerable situation of energy use and GHG emissions for them to take proper and timely actions to cope with the threats of climate change which can occur anytime in the very near future
Citedy By: 45
Substitution of labour, capital and energy in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: M Iqbal
Journal: Empirical Economics,Vol.11 (2), 1986--Pages 81–95
Abstract: Share equations of labour, capital, energy and fuel types, derived from translog cost functions, are estimated by Zellner iterative method to obtain elasticities of labour, capital, energy and fuel types and elasticities of substitution between them. Labour, capital and energy appear as substitutes, natural gas and electricity as complements, and other fuels as substitutes.
Citedy By: 34
Bivariate cointegration between energy consumption and development factors: a case study of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: K Zaman, MM Khan, Z Saleem
Journal: Journal of Green Energy,Vol.8 (8), 2011--Pages 
Abstract: The relationship between total energy consumption and economic growth has been extensively explored in the past, but relatively few researchers have examined the increasing trend of energy consumption and development policies of a developing country like Pakistan as well as direction of causation of this relationship that remains controversial. The objective of this paper is to empirically investigate four alternatives but equally plausible hypotheses. These are as follows: (i) development factors cause total primary energy consumption, (ii) energy consumption cause development factors, (iii) there is a bidirectional causality between the two variables, and (iv) both variables are causality independent. To investigate the relationship between the two variables set, a time series cointegration and Granger causality tests have been employed separately. Secondary data pertaining to Pakistan from 1980 to 2009 has been used for analysis. The empirical result of causality strongly supports the bidirectional relationship between carbon dioxide emission and energy demand and industrialization and energy demand. There is a unidirectional causality relationship between the energy demand and population growth. However, neither agriculture value addition nor energy demand affect each other.
Citedy By: 0
Electrical energy crisis in Pakistan and their possible solutions
[PDF] 
Author: MA Javaid, S Hussain, A Maqsood
Journal: Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences ,Vol.11 (5), 2011--Pages 
Abstract: This work presents the dilemma of shortfall in the supply of electrical energy that is currently faced by Pakistan. The root cause of this shortage in the supply of energy is mentioned in this work. An abridged history as well as the present situation of the electricity production and its consumption in the country is discussed. The electricity generation potential of Pakistan in different sectors to produce energy is viewed. The importance of utilization of coal resources and water resources for the production of electric power is discussed. Pakistan has been blessed with rich and vast renewable energy (RE) resources. These renewable energy resources can play effective and considerable role in contributing towards energy security and energy independence of the country. Some predictions are made on the basis of empirical data and preliminary observations. An estimated forecast of demand and supply of electricity for the next twenty years is also projected in this article
Citedy By: 0
Time series models to simulate and forecast hourly averaged wind speed in Quetta, Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: L Kamal, YZ Jafri
Journal: Solar Energy,Vol.61 (1), 1999--Pages 23-32
Abstract: Stochastic simulation and forecast models of hourly average wind speeds are presented. Time series models take into account several basic features of wind speed data including autocorrelation, non-Gaussian distribution and diurnal nonstationarity. The positive correlation between consecutive wind speed observations is taken into account by flitting an ARMA (p,q) process to wind speed data transformed to make their distribution approximately Gaussian and standardized to remove scattering of transformed data. Diurnal variations have been taken into account to observe forecasts and its dependence on lead times. We find the ARMA (p,q) model suitable for prediction intervals and probability forecasts.
Citedy By: 234
Does renewable energy consumption add in economic growth? An application of auto-regressive distributed lag model in Pakistan
[PDF] esearchgate.net
Author: M Shahbaz, N Loganathan, M Zeshan
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy ,Vol.44 (), 2015--Pages 576–585
Abstract: The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth by incorporating capital and labour as potential determinants of production function in case of Pakistan. This study used auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) model and rolling window approach (RWA) for cointegration in context of Pakistan. The study used quarterly data over the period of 1972Q1–2011Q4. The causality analysis applied through VECM Granger causality and innovative accounting approaches. The results reveal that all the variables in the study are cointegrated that shows the long run relationship between the variables. Furthermore, renewable energy consumption, capital and labour boost economic growth. The causality analysis shows the feedback effect between economic growth and renewable energy consumption
Citedy By: 28
Energy requirement and economic analysis of rice production in western part of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: MA Khan, IU Awan, J Zafar
Journal: Soil and Environment (Pakistan,Vol.28 (1), 2009--Pages 60-67
Abstract: This study examines energy use pattern and the relationship between energy inputs and rice production in Dera Ismail Khan, District of Pakistan. The information used in this study were based on cross-sectional data collected from growers by using face-to-face interviews. The sample farms were selected through a stratified sampling technique. The results revealed that energy consumption and rice yield were 5,756 kWh and 3.23 tones per hectare on Bullock Operated Farms (BOF) and 11,162 kWh and 4.12 tones per hectare on Tractor Operated Farms (TOF). Consumption of animate energy on BOF was more than TOF due to heavy use of animate energy in land preparation operation. Result also showed that energy efficiency i.e. output-input ratio on BOF (6.32) was higher than TOF (4.16). Cost of production remained lower on BOF than TOF, however, the yield and consequently crop values and net return were higher on TOF than BOF. It was concluded that increase in energy consumption at farm level increased yield of rice, hence the farmers with higher cost of production could get better return of their crop
Citedy By: 19
Empirical models for the correlation of monthly average daily global solar radiation with hours of sunshine on a horizontal surface at Karachi, Pakistan
[PDF] journals.tubitak.gov.tr
Author: F Ahmed, I Ulfat
Journal: Turkish Journal of Physics,Vol. (), 2004--Pages 
Abstract: A new set of constants for Angstrom-type correlation of first and second order, to estimate monthly average daily global solar radiation, has been obtained employing sunshine hours data recorded at Karachi, Pakistan (Lat. 24◦ 540 N, Long. 67◦ 080 E). Least square regression is performed to derive these constants. The correlation equations developed are employed to calculate the monthly average daily global solar radiation. These results are then compared with various other existing correlations and the measured data. Excellent agreement has been found between the estimated and the measured values.
Citedy By: 71
] Baloch nationalism and the geopolitics of energy resources: The changing context of separatism in Pakistan
[PDF] dtic.mil
Author: RG Wirsing
Journal: books.google.com,Vol. (), 2005--Pages 
Abstract: This monograph examines the Baloch separatist insurgency that has resurfaced in recent years in Pakistan's sprawling Balochistan province. The author maintains that the context of today's insurgency differs in certain important respects from that of its 1970s
Citedy By: 35
Towards a new measurement of energy poverty: A cross-community analysis of rural Pakistan
[PDF] maastrichtuniversity.nl
Author: B Mirza, E Szirmai
Journal: UNU-MERIT Working Papers 2010 ,Vol. (), 2010--Pages 
Abstract: Most rural households in Pakistan remain in a state of energy poverty. They use a variety of non-conventional energy sources, including traditional biomass (firewood, animal and plant waste), kerosene and even LPG. A specially designed Energy Poverty Survey (EPS), carried out in rural Pakistan from December 2008 till January 2009, showed that rural households use different combinations of energy sources (the energy mix). This paper analyses the characteristics and consequences of the different energy mixes, used by richer and poorer rural households. Using data from the EPS, we develop a composite index to measure the degree of Energy Poverty among rural households. This index takes into account the inconvenience for the household associated with the use of different sources of energy, as well as its energy shortfall and takes household size into account. In our results, we found that 23.1% of rural households experience high degrees of energy inconveniences, spending ample amount of their time and effort in collecting or buying different energy sources. Next, using the standard conversion units to convert different energy sources into kilowatt hours, we found that 96.6% rural households experience severe energy shortfalls. Our new and inclusive measure of energy poverty which combines the energy inconveniences and the energy shortfalls, reveals that 91.7% of all rural households in Punjab province of Pakistan are in the state of severe energy poverty
Citedy By: 32
Prospects of renewables penetration in the energy mix of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: SZ Farooqui
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol.29 (), 2014--Pages 693–700
Abstract: Pakistan is the sixth most populous country of the world comprising 2.56% of the total global population. However, it ranks 37th in the energy consumption, at 0.37% of the world total. The per capita energy availability is only 43 W, which is 1/7th of the world average. The greatest reason for such a huge energy deficiency is its heavy dependence on imported oil for power generation. The country is however, rich in renewable energy sources and has vast potential for their exploitation. In this article, a survey of the availability of various renewable energy sources, including hydel, solar, wind and biomass, and their current and future penetration prospects in the total energy mix have been carried out, with some recommendations. It is estimated that Pakistan has the feasible potential of 30 GW of installed power capacity from hydel and 50 GW of installed capacity from wind by 2030
Citedy By: 29
Solar and wind energy potential and utilization in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: IA Raja, RS Abro
Journal: Renewable Energy,Vol.5 (1-4), 1994--Pages 583-586
Abstract: Pakistan needs substantial amount of energy to develop its industry and to increase the agricultural productivity. The available indigenous energy resources are limited. The only option which the country has to pursue is renewable energy. This paper identifies the potentials of solar and wind energy. The prime sites for wind are coastal area, arid zone and hill terrains. Solar energy is abundant over most part of the country, maximum being received over Quetta valley.
Citedy By: 21
Relationship between financial leverage and financial performance: Evidence from fuel & energy sector of Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: S Akhtar, B Javed, A Maryam, H Sadia
Journal: European Journal of Business & Management,Vol. (), 2012--Pages 
Abstract: Fuel and energy sector serves as the backbone of the economy. The segment provides support, not only for the economic development of the country by showing positive trends towards the sectoral growth, but also serves as a steering wheel for the growth of manufacturing, trading and service sector. It provides significant inputs for production, trade and service. A general concept prevails that the financial leverage is helpful to enhance the financial performance of the companies. For measuring the impact of financial leverage on the financial health of the companies, it is essential to know whether a positive relationship exists between the financial leverage and financial performance or not? So, this study is intended to test the hypothesis and to measure a relationship between the financial leverage and the financial performance of the fuel and energy sector in Pakistan. The paper also examines the generalization that firms with higher profitability may choose high leverage by using various statistical tools. The findings of the study show a positive relationship between the financial leverage and the financial performance of the companies by accepting the alternate hypothesis H1 and Ho is rejected. The results of the study confirm that the firms having higher profitability may improve their financial performance by having high levels of financial leverage. The study provides evidence by evaluating different facts. It reveals that the players of the fuel and energy in Pakistan can improve at their financial performance by employing the financial leverage and can arrive at a sustainable future growth by making vital decisions about the choice of their optimal capital structure.
Citedy By: 29
Relationship between financial leverage and financial performance: Evidence from fuel & energy sector of Pakistan
[PDF] academia.edu
Author: S Akhtar, B Javed, A Maryam, H Sadia
Journal: European Journal of Business & Management,Vol. (), 2012--Pages 
Abstract: Fuel and energy sector serves as the backbone of the economy. The segment provides support, not only for the economic development of the country by showing positive trends towards the sectoral growth, but also serves as a steering wheel for the growth of manufacturing, trading and service sector. It provides significant inputs for production, trade and service. A general concept prevails that the financial leverage is helpful to enhance the financial performance of the companies. For measuring the impact of financial leverage on the financial health of the companies, it is essential to know whether a positive relationship exists between the financial leverage and financial performance or not? So, this study is intended to test the hypothesis and to measure a relationship between the financial leverage and the financial performance of the fuel and energy sector in Pakistan. The paper also examines the generalization that firms with higher profitability may choose high leverage by using various statistical tools. The findings of the study show a positive relationship between the financial leverage and the financial performance of the companies by accepting the alternate hypothesis H1 and Ho is rejected. The results of the study confirm that the firms having higher profitability may improve their financial performance by having high levels of financial leverage. The study provides evidence by evaluating different facts. It reveals that the players of the fuel and energy in Pakistan can improve at their financial performance by employing the financial leverage and can arrive at a sustainable future growth by making vital decisions about the choice of their optimal capital structure.
Citedy By: 29
The relationship between electricity consumption, electricity prices and GDP in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: F Jamil, E Ahmad
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol. (), 2010--Pages 
Abstract: This study analyzes the relationship among electricity consumption, its price and real GDP at the aggregate and sectoral level in Pakistan. Using annual data for the period 1960–2008, the study finds the presence of unidirectional causality from real economic activity to electricity consumption. In particular, growth in output in commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors tend to increase electricity consumption, while in residential sector, growth in private expenditures is the cause of rising electricity consumption. The study concludes that electricity production and management needs to be better integrated with overall economic planning exercises. This is essential to avoid electricity shortfalls and unplanned load shedding.
Citedy By: 131
Energy conservation policies, growth and trade performance: Evidence of feedback hypothesis in Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: SA Raza, M Shahbaz, DK Nguyen
Journal: Energy Policy,Vol.38 (10), 2010--Pages 6016–6025
Abstract: This study analyzes the relationship among electricity consumption, its price and real GDP at the aggregate and sectoral level in Pakistan. Using annual data for the period 1960–2008, the study finds the presence of unidirectional causality from real economic activity to electricity consumption. In particular, growth in output in commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors tend to increase electricity consumption, while in residential sector, growth in private expenditures is the cause of rising electricity consumption. The study concludes that electricity production and management needs to be better integrated with overall economic planning exercises. This is essential to avoid electricity shortfalls and unplanned load shedding
Citedy By: 34
The cost of unserved energy: evidence from selected industrial cities of Pakistan
[PDF] 
Author: R Siddiqui, HH Jalil, M Nasir, WS Malik
Journal: The Pakistan Development Review,Vol.47 (3), 2008--Pages 227-246
Abstract: This study is an attempt to explore the cost of unserved energy due to power outages in Pakistan that started in 2007. The study is based on a survey conducted for four major industrial cities of Punjab—Gujrat, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, and Sialkot. In addition to quantification of output losses, the effect on employment, cost of production, and delay in supply orders are also examined. The output loss is quantified using two-dimensional analyses, controlling for variations in the duration of outages and in the shift hours. The survey data reveal that employment has not suffered any significant drop due to alternative energy arrangements. These arrangements, nevertheless, have increased the production cost of the firms. Delays in the delivery of supply orders are also due to energy shortage. The study reports that the total industrial output loss varies between 12 percent and 37 percent, with Punjab as the major affected province. In the two dimensional analysis resulting in nine scenarios for each province, the ranges of losses in billion Rs are 132-400, 109-331, 17-54 and 11-34 for Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan respectively. The overall industrial sector loss in volume ranges between 269-819 billion rupees. In the overall analysis, food and beverages, textile, and chemical product industries are respectively the top three industries on the scale of losses. However, in terms of percentages, the pottery and ceramic industry is the industry that suffered the most
Citedy By: 28